Advanced English Grammar: Dependent Clauses

Publicat pe 16 oct. 2015
Do you have a hard time understanding dependent clauses? In English, we have four types of dependent clauses. In this advanced lesson, I'll help you understand each type of dependent clause and its purpose. I'll give you definitions and examples of each clause. Mastering these clauses will improve your reading comprehension and make you a better writer. After the class, take the quiz to practice what you've learned.
Watch Adam's series on clauses!
Noun Clauses rotorrentinfo/watch/n4bVdqm22m2Dtac.html
Adjective Clauses rotorrentinfo/watch/raO5ZJ2_q6aemdE.html
Adverb Clauses rotorrentinfo/watch/zJ7SoLCwn4aNuqs.html
Hi. Welcome back to I'm Adam, and today's lesson is a special lesson. It's an introduction to dependent clauses. Now, before I begin, I want you to understand I'm only going to look at the functions of the dependent clauses today. I'm not going to look at how they're built, how to structure them, the conjunctions they use, the relative pronouns they use; only about the functions, because it's very important that you are able to recognize the different types of dependent clauses. Once you recognize the function of a clause, you know how it's built, you know what it's doing in the sentence, you can understand the sentence better, you can write better sentences.
So, dependent clauses, what are they? First of all, they're also called subordinate clauses. You might see "subordinate", you might see "dependent". They're very different from the independent clause. The independent clause is a clause that can stand by itself, and has a complete meaning. It doesn't have... It doesn't need any other information. A "clause" is a collection of words-sorry-that must include a subject and a verb.
Okay, we have basically four types. Technically, we think of three types, but there's one extra one that we're going to look at today. We have "noun clauses", we have "adjective clauses"-adjective clauses" are also called "relative clauses"-we have "adverb clauses", and we have something called a "that clause", which is really none of these three. It's closest to the noun clause, but it doesn't function like a noun clause.
We're going to start with the noun clause, then. What is a noun clause? First of all, a noun clause has a specific function in a sentence. It is used, just like it's called, it's used like a noun. You think of a noun clause as you would a noun, except that it's a clause. There's a subject, there's a verb, there's other pieces to it. We can use it as a subject of a sentence, we can use it as a subject of an otherwise independent clause. "What you do in your free time is your business." So, look... Let's, first of all, look at all the verbs, here. We have "do" and we have "is". We have two verbs. The subject for "you"... For "do" is "you". Okay? What is the subject for "is"? Well, if you look around, it's not "time", it's not "your", and it's not "you" because "you" is already being used. So the whole thing: "What you do in your free time", this is the subject, this is the verb, this is the subject complement. Okay?
Now, very rarely do people actually use noun clauses as subjects, especially in writing. What they might say is "it": "It is your business what you do in your free time." Okay? We call this a "preparatory 'it'". It means we prepare you for the subject that's going to come later. Why do we do this? Because it's more... It's a bit awkward to do it like this. It's more convenient to begin with "it", get to the verb, and get to whatever comes after the verb, and put the subject later because it's long. Okay? "What you do in your free time", subject, "is", verb.
Now, we can use it as a subject complement. A subject complement looks like an object, but it is not. It comes after a "be" verb. It comes after a "be" verb, okay? And it completes the meaning of the subject. So, Tom, what do we know about Tom? "Tom isn't"... Isn't what? He "isn't what you would call friendly." This is the noun clause. There is the subject, there is the verb. These, by the way, these are just called the pronouns or the conjunctions, whatever you want to call them. They begin the clause. Now, as we know from other lessons, "is" works like an equal sign. Tom, not really friendly. That's basically what this sentence means. This is the subject complement to Tom, noun clause. Notice the conjunction "what" can only be used in a noun clause; not in an adjective clause, not in an adverb clause.


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  • Adan you are an amazing teacher. Thank you so much for all your videos it that helps a lot.

  • I decided to study clauses, because in the TOEFL test reading section I've noticed I can't identify when a sentence has too much stuff. I thought this lesson was going to be somenthing complementary but I've wrote 6 pages with examples and watched 3 videos so far. Hopefully this will be helpfull and I can read correctly and write better. Thanks a lot!

  • Adam Sir you are awesome. Thanks for teaching us the dependend clauses.

  • He said he was ill, which was not true....

  • Who is Tom?

  • I'm really glad I came across these videos. I've bookmarked sufficient number of them, so when I get the need/interest, what-ever, I can just play what is appropriate for half-hour at a time. That way I can feed my interest to suit my needs, without having to take notes. I only feed the 'seed' of my curiosity--that way, I become fully aware of the subject matter; when I'm hungry I know exactly what food I want to eat--I sense it. I find it's the same with learning. 74 next and still curious. The youth of today are at an advantage..... the internet has excellent teachers, Adam resonates the nuts and bolts of grammar. Take advantage of every video--bookmark the lot, It's a gift !

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  • thanks im a native english speaker and i need these videos!

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  • Can I say: "I lent her my notes because she had missed too many classes"?

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  • can i use these kind of sentences in ielts writing ? i mean in formal academic scenarios any help appreciated

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  • Can you sir help me to understand what the dependent clause mean

  • Please, you make lessons reducing noun, adjective and adverb clauses. Thank you very much.

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  • predicate nominative are the same as subject complement?

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  • dependent and independent clauses

  • Could you please make a video about comma insertion in the sentence?I think there are 5 types of comma.

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  • This is something we need even after reading grammar books of advanced level.

  • Adam, witch are the 7 types oficina clauses? Thank You!!

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  • Great video! I just have a question - why there is not used past perfect in the last example: ... I knew she was happy that I had met the right person. I’d really appreciate the explanation. Thanks! :)

  • I am a bit confused as you have said that you use "that" in (#1) identifying clauses, yet your example uses who. I understand that you specified if it is a thing it is that and so it is true that if it is a person, it is who.

  • English becomes of importance nowadays, which makes me learn it really hard. Thanks to Adam's lesson we are able to find useful guidelines on how to study advanced grammar easily and efficiently.

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  • At 5:41 She said (that) she was angry. Can anyone tell me please how "(that) she was angry' is an object of verb "said" instead of it should be subject complemnt?

    • Mohammed Azkar because it answers the question ‘WHAT did she say?’ or ‘She said WHAT?’

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